New Testament

John 1


In the beginning was the Logosa, and the Logosb was with God, and the Logosb was God. 2 This one was in the beginning with God. 3 All came into being through him, and apart from him came into being not one thing that has come into being.c 4 In him was zōē-lifed, and the zōē-life was the lighte of humanityf 5 And the lighte shinesg in the darknessh, and the darknessh did not masteri it.

6 There came a personj who has been sent from God, whose name was Iōannēs; 7 This one came for a witness, that he should witness concerning the light, that all believe through him. 8 He was not the light, but that he witness concerning the light. 9 This was the true light, that lights every personj coming into the world. 10 He was in the world, and the world came into being through him, and the world did not knowk him. 11 He came to his own [things]l, and his own [people]m did not receive him. 12 But as many as received him, to them he gave the authorityn to become children of God, to those believing in his name, 13 — those who were born not by bloodso, nor by the will of fleshp, nor by the will of a husbandq but by God.

14 And the Logosb became fleshr, and tenteds See the Glossary: SKĒNĒ/σκηνή} among us, and we observed his glory, glory as of the only-begottent from the father, full of grace and truth. 15 Iōannēs witnesses concerning him and has cried out saying: This one was about whom I said: The one coming after me is become in front of me because he was beforeu. 16 For out of his fullness we all received even gracev upon gracew. 17 For the law was given through Mōsēs, gracev and truth came into being through Iēsous Christ. 18 No one has ever seen God; the only-begottent, GodA, the one being in the lapx of the father, that one declaredy him.

 Iōannēs the Baptizer 

19 And this is the witness of Iōannēs when the Jews sent to him priests and Levites from Hierosoluma that they askz him: Who are you? 20 And he professed and did not deny, and professed: I am not the Christ. 21 And they askedz him, What then? Are you Ēlias? And he says: I am not. Are you the prophet? And he answered: No. 22 Then they said to him: Who are you, so that we may give answer to those having sent us. What do you say about yourself?

23 He said:aa

I am the voice of one crying in the wilderness,
Make straight the wayab of the Lord,

just as Ēsaias the prophet said.

24 And they had been sent from the Pharisees. 25 And they asked himz and said to him: So why do you baptize if you are not the Christ nor Ēlias nor the prophet?

26 Iōannēs answered them saying: I baptize in water. In your midst has stood what you do not know, 27 the one coming after me, of whom I am not worthy that I may loose the thong of his sandal. 28 These things came to pass in Bētharba on the other side of the Iordanēs, where Iōannēs was baptizing.

 The Lamb of God 

29 On the next day he sees Iēsous coming toward him, and says: Behold the lamb of God, the one taking away the sin of the world. 30 This is the one concerning whom I said: a man comes after me that is become before me, because he was my foremostac. 31 And I did not know him. But so that he be revealed to Israēl, because of this I came baptizing in water.

32 And Iōannēs witnessed, saying: I have seen the spirit coming down as a dove from heaven, and he remainedad upon him. 33 And I did not know him, but the one who sent me to be baptizing in water, that one said to me: Upon whom you see the spirit coming down and remainingad upon him, this is the one baptizing in the Holy Spirit. 34 And I have seen, and have witnessed that this is the son of God.

 The First Disciples 

35 On the next day Iōannēs had again stood, also two of his disciples. 36 And when he looked upon Iēsous walking he says: Behold the lamb of God. 37 And the two disciples heard him speaking and they followed Iēsous. 38 Now when Iēsous turned and saw them following he says to them: What are you seeking? And they said to him: Rabbi, which means being translated: Teacher, where are you stayingad? 39 He says to them: Be coming and you will see. So they came and saw where he staysad, and they stayedad with him that day, as it was the tenth hourae.

40 Andreas the brother of Simōn Petros was one of the two who heard from Iōannēs and followed him. 41 This one finds first his own brother Simōn and says to him: We have found Messiahaf, which is being translated: Christ. 42 He brought him to Iēsous. Having looked upon him, Iēsous said: You are Simōn the son of Jonas, you shall be called Cephasag, which is translated: Petrosah.

43 On the next day he wanted to go forth into Galilaia, and he finds Phillipos. And Iēsous says to him: Be following me. 44 Now Phillipos was from Bethsaida, out of the city of Andreas and Petros. 45 Phillipos finds Nathanaēl, and says to him: What is written in the law of Mōsēs and the prophets we have found, Iēsous, son of Iōsēph, the one from Nazara. 46 And Nathanaēl said to him: What good is able to be out of Nazara? Phillipos says to him: Be coming and see.

47 Iēsous saw Nathanaēl coming toward him and says concerning him: Behold a true Israēlite in whom there is not deceit. 48 Nathanaēl says to him: Whence do you knowk me? Iēsous answered and said to him: Before Phillipos called you, being under the fig tree I saw you. 49 Nathanaēl answered him: Rabbi, you are the son of God, you are king of Israēl. 50 Iēsous answered and said to him: Because I told you that I saw you under the fig tree you are believing? Greater than these you will see. 51 Truly truly I say to you, You will [all]ai see heaven having opened and the angels of God ascending and descendingaj. upon the son of humanityj

a In this opening phrase the author alludes both to Hellenistic Greek philosophy and the Jewish scriptures. A major concern of Greek philosophy was ‘first cause’ – what came first in the Cosmos not just chronologically, but also what is the ‘primary stuff’ out of which everything is made. In Greek thinking the LOGOS/λόγος — the organizing principle of the entire Cosmos — plays a crucial role. The opening phrase would also appear to be a deliberate allusion to Gen.1:1, and there are other allusions in John 1 to Genesis 1 as well, e.g. ‘life’ John 1:4, ‘light’ John 1:4 and ‘darkness’ John 1:5. See the Glossary: LOGOS/λόγος.(↩1)

b LOGOS/λόγος: word. See the Glossary: LOGOS/λόγος(↩1, 14)

c There is a major punctuation problem here in the Greek in vs. 3–4. Punctuation wasn’t used in the first century, so depending on how one adds it later one ends up either with how the Text now reads “apart from him came into being not one thing that has come into being. In him was zōē-life...” or alternately “apart from him came into being not one thing. What has come into being by him is zōē-life...”. Based on stylistic and structural considerations, the evidence seems to tilt towards the former. See [Net] John 1:3 footnote.(↩3)

d ZOĒ/ζωή: life more generally/collectively (vs. PsUChĒ/ψυχή: life as an individual consciousness). See the Semantic Domain: Life.(↩4)

e PhŌS/φῶς: light. See the Glossary: PhŌS/φῶς(↩4, 5)

f ANThRŌPOS/ἄνθρωπος. Perhaps an allusion to Ps.36:9: “in your light we see light.”?(↩4)

g PhAINŌ/φαίνω: to shine. g(↩5)

h SKOTIA/σκοτία: darkness. See the Glossary: SKOTOS/σκότος(↩5)

i KATALAMBANŌ/καταλαμβάνω: overcome, understand(↩5)

j ANThRŌPOS/ἄνθρωπος: humanity in general — not gender specific. See the Semantic Domain: Man/Woman/Humanity.(↩6, 9, 51)

k GINŌSKŌ/γινώσκω: to know, in a direct or firsthand manner. See the Glossary: GNŌSIS/γνῶσις(↩10, 48)

l ‘Things’ is implied because ‘own’ is neuter plural(↩11)

m ‘People’ is implied because ‘own’ is masculine plural(↩11)

n EXOUSIA/ἐξουσία: authority. See the Glossary: EXOUSIA/ἐξουσία(↩12)

o ‘Blood’ plural. May imply both parents — ’human descent’?(↩13)

p SARX/σάρξ: flesh. Sexual desire? SARX/σάρξ in John’s Gospel does not have the evil connotation common in Paul’s usage. After all, see v.14. See the Glossary: SARX/σάρξ(↩13)

q Or ‘a man’. See the Glossary: ANĒR/ἀνήρ(↩13)

r SARX/σάρξ: flesh. See the Glossary: SARX/σάρξ(↩14)

s SKĒNOŌ/SKĒNOŌ/σκηνόω: reside in a temporary shelter. May refer to the Tabernacle of the Old Testament. See the Glossary: SKĒNĒ/σκηνή(↩14)

t MONOGENĒS/μονογενής: only born/begotten. See the Glossary: MONOGENĒS/μονογενής(↩14, 18)

u Can mean ‘before’ in the sense of Rank, or of Time (he was here first)(↩15)

v ChARIS/χάρις: grace, kindness. See the Glossary: ChARIS/χάρις(↩16, 17)

w Could mean 1. “grace instead of grace” (“new covenant” replacing the “old”?), 2. “grace upon grace” — a super-abundance of grace, or 3. “grace corresponding to grace”. The most commonly held view is 2. See the Septuagint Ex.33:13: “...if I have found grace in your sight, let me know your ways, that I may know you, so that I may find grace in your sight.” In other words, ’if I have found grace, let me find more.’ See the footnote in [Net](↩16)

x KOLPOS/κόλπος: lap, bosom. See the Glossary: KOLPOS/κόλπος(↩18)

y Or ‘explained’(↩18)

z ERŌTAŌ/ἐρωτάω: ‘ask’ more respectfully (vs. AITEŌ/αἰτέω: ask more insistently). See the Semantic Domain: Ask.(↩19, 21, 25)

aa Is.40:3(↩23)

ab hODOS/ὁδός: road, way, journey. See the Glossary: hODOS/ὁδός(↩23)

ac Or “first”(↩30)

ad MENŌ/μένω: remain, abide. See the Glossary: MENŌ/μένω(↩32, 33, 38, 39)

ae Since ‘hours’ began at sunrise (approximately 6am), the 10th hour is approx. 4 p.m.(↩39)

af MESSIAS/Μεσσίας: Messiah. See the Glossary: MESSIAS/Μεσσίας(↩41)

ag Aramaic for ‘rock’(↩42)

ah PETROS/Πέτρος: Petros. See the Glossary: PETROS/Πέτρος(↩42)

ai ‘All’ is implied because ‘you’ is plural(↩51)

aj An allusion to Iakōb’s ladder — “angels ascending and descending.” (Gen.28:12–17)(↩51)

✣  ✣  ✣

A “God” p66,75אBH; “son” K vulgate. Note: only one letter would have differentiated these two readings in the manuscripts. See the footnote in [Net](↩18)

          John 2