New Testament

 Iēsous and Nicodemus 

John 3

Now there was a persona from the Pharisees, named Nicodemos, a rulerb of the Jews. 2 This one came to him in the night and said to him: Rabbic, we know that you are comed a teacher from God, for no one is able to be doing these signse that you do unless God is with him. 3 Iēsous answered and said to him: Truly trulyf I say to you, if someone not be begotteng from aboveh, he is not able to see the kingdom of God. 4 Nicodemus says to him: How is a persona able to be begotteng being old? Is he able to enter into his mother’s belly a second time and be begotteng?i

5 Iēsous answered: Truly trulyf I say to you, if someone not be begotteng of water and spiritj, he is not able to enter intoA the kingdom of God. 6 That which is begotteng of the flesh is flesh, and that which is begotteng of the spiritj is spiritj. 7 You should not marvel that I said to youk, You must [all]l be begotteng from aboveh. 8 The windj blowsj where it wants, and you hear its sound but do not know whence it is coming and where it is going, in this manner is everyone who has been begotteng by the spiritj.

9 Nicodemos answered and said to him: How are these things able to come to pass? 10 Iēsous answered and said to him: You are the teacher of Israēl and you do not knowm these things? 11 Truly truly I say to youk that what we have known we speak and what we have seen we testify, and our testimony youn do not receive. 12 If I told the earthly to youn, and youn do not believe, how will you believe if I tell the heavenly to youn? 13 And no one has gone up into heaven except the one having come down from heaven, the son of humanitya. 14 And just as Mōsēs lifted upo the snake in the wildernessp, in this manner it is necessary for the son of humanitya to be lifted up, 15 so that everyone believing in him may be having zōē-lifeq eternalr.

16 For God thuss agapē-loved the world: so that he gave his only-begottent son, so that everyone believing in him not perish but be having zōē-lifeq eternal. 17 For God did not send his son into the world that he judge the world, but that the world be saved through him. 18 The one believing in him is not judged, the one not believing in him has already been judged, because he has not believed in the name of the only-begottent son of God. 19 And this is the judgment, that the light has come into the world and peoplea agapē-loved the darkness rather than the light, for their works were wicked. 20 For everyone practicingu worthlessnessv hates the light and does not come to the light, that his works not be rebuked. 21 But the one doing the truth comes to the light, so that his works be revealed that they have been wrought by God.

 Iēsous and Iōannēs the Baptizer 

22 After these things Iēsous and his disciples came into the Ioudaian land and he remained with them and was baptizing. 23 Now Iōannēs was also baptizing in Aenon near Salim, because there was much water there, and they were coming and were being baptized. 24 For Iōannēs had not yet been thrown into prison.

25 Now a controversy arose among the disciples of Iōannēs with the Jews concerning purification. 26 And they came to Iōannēs and said to him: Rabbi, He who was with you on the other side of the Iordanēs, to whom you have begotteng witness, Behold this one baptizes and all come to him.

27 Iōannēs answered and said: a persona is able to be receiving nothingw unless it have been given to him from heaven. 28 You yourselves bear me witness that I said: I am not the Christ, but that I have been sent before that one. 29 The one having the bride is the bridegroom. But the friend of the bridegroom, the one who has stood and has heard him, rejoices with joy because of the sound of the bridegroom. So my joy has been fulfilled. 30 He must be increasing, but I must be diminishing.

 He Who Comes from Heaven 

31 The one coming from aboveh is over all; the one from the earth is from the earth and speaks from the earth. The one being from heaven is over all. 32 What he has seen and heard, of this he testifies, and no one receives his testimony. 33 The one having received his testimony has set his seal to this, that God is true. 34 For the one whom God sent speaks the words of God, for he does not give the spirit by measurex. 35 The father agapē-loves the son, and has given everything into his hand. 36 The one believing in the son has eternal zōē-lifeq, but the one disobeying the son will not see zōē-lifeq, but the wrath of God abides on him.

a ANThRŌPOS/ἄνθρωπος: humanity in general — not gender specific. See the Semantic Domain: Man/Woman/Humanity.(↩1, 4, 13, 14, 19, 27)

b That is, a member of the ruling council, the Sanhedrin, the highest legal, legislative, and judicial body among the Jews.(↩1)

c RABBI/ῥαββί: master, sir. See the Glossary: RABBI/ῥαββί(↩2)

d Perfect tense: an action completed in the past whose results continue in the present — in a sense it is ‘past tense’ and ‘present tense’ at the same time (see [Zerwick1996] p.xxiv). The perfect verb tense is relatively rare, occurring 1571 times in the New Testament, vs. the present tense at 11,583 occurrences and the aorist (the most common tense for time past) at 11,606 occurrences [Wallace1996] p.497.(↩2)

e SĒMEION/σημεῖον: sign. See the Glossary: SĒMEION/σημεῖον(↩2)

f AMĒN/ἀμήν: truly. ‘Truly’ (once) occurs 96 times in the N.T. (and never in John’s gospel); ‘Truly truly’ (twice) occurs 25 times, and only in Johns’s gospel. See the Glossary: AMĒN/ἀμήν(↩3, 5)

g GENNAŌ/γεννάω: the reproductive process in general: sire (male) or give birth (female), depending on context. See the Glossary: GENNAŌ/γεννάω. In this passage GENNAŌ/γεννάω is generally translated ‘born’. Is this because Nicodemus says in vs.4 “is he able to enter into his mother’s belly...”? In other words, is GENNAŌ/γεννάω generally translated as ‘born’ here because we are misunderstanding Iēsous’ words in the same way that Nicodemus misunderstood them? Meanwhile, by translating GENNAŌ/γεννάω as ‘born’, the English reader misses the connection/word play where Iēsous says in vs. 16 “God thus loved the world that he sent his only-begotten son...” In other words, in this passage Iēsous is saying that WE must be begotten from above in the same way that HE WAS.(↩3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 26)

h ANŌThEN/ἄνωθεν: above, again. See the Glossary: ANŌThEN/ἄνωθεν(↩3, 7, 31)

i Grammar indicates ‘no’ is expected.(↩4)

j PNEUMA/πνεῦμα: spirit, wind, breath. See the Glossary: PNEUMA/πνεῦμα(↩5, 6, 8)

k Singular(↩7, 11)

l ‘All’ is implied because ‘you’ is plural(↩7)

m GINŌSKŌ/γινώσκω: to know, in a direct or firsthand manner. See the Glossary: GNŌSIS/γνῶσις(↩10)

n Plural(↩11, 12)

o UPsOŌ/ὑψόω: lift up. See the Glossary: UPSOŌ/ὑψόω(↩14)

p The O.T. account of this incident is found in Num.21:5-9(↩14)

q ZOĒ/ζωή: life more generally/collectively (vs. PsUChĒ/ψυχή: life as an individual consciousness). See the Semantic Domain: Life.(↩15, 16, 36)

r The first time ‘life eternal’ appears in the Gospel(↩15)

s OUTŌS/ουτως can either mean the degree — “how much” God agapē-loved the world, and/or the manner — “in what way” God agapē-loved the world.(↩16)

t MONOGENĒS/μονογενής: only born/begotten. See the Glossary: MONOGENĒS/μονογενής(↩16, 18)

u PRASSŌ/πράσσω: to practice, perform repeatedly. See the Glossary: PRASSŌ/πράσσω(↩20)

v PhAULOS/φαῦλος: vile. See the Glossary: PhAULOS/φαῦλος(↩20)

w Double negative, indicating emphasis.(↩27)

x i.e. he gives the spirit without measure(↩34)

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A א few: ’to see’(↩5)

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