New Testament

 Feeding the Five Thousand 

John 6

After these things Iēsous came across the sea of Galilaia of Tiberias. 2 Now a great crowd followed him, because they were seeing the signsa that he did upon the sick. 3 So Iēsous went up to the mountain, and sat there with his disciples. 4 Now it was near the Passover, the festival of the Jews. 5 So Iēsous having lifted up his eyes and having observed that a great crowd comes to him, he says to Phillipos: Where may we buy bread in order that they eat? 6 But he was saying this testing him. For he knew what he was about to be doing. 7 Phillipos answered him: Bread from two hundred denarii is not sufficient for them, in order that each receive a little. 8 One of his disciples, Andreas the brother of Simōn Petros, says to him: 9 A boy is here who has five barley bread loaves and two small fishes; but what are these to so many?

10 But Iēsous said: Have the people sit. Now there was much grass in the place. So the peopleb sat whose number was about five-thousand. 11 So Iēsous took the loaves, and having blessed them distributed them to the disciples, and the disciplesA to those reclining; likewise also of the small fish as much as they wanted. 12 Now when they were filled, he says to his disciples: Gather the excess fragments, in order that none be lostc. 13 So they gathered, and filled twelve baskets with the fragments of the five barley bread loaves that they had more than enough for those having eaten.

14 So the peopleb having seen what sign he did were saying that: This is truly the prophet coming into the world. 15 So Iēsous having knownd that they were about to be coming and seizing him in order that they may make him king, withdrew again to the mountain himself alone.

 Walking on the Water 

16 Now as it became evening, his disciples came down upon the sea, 17 and having embarked in the boat they were going across the sea to Kapharnaoum. And it had become dark, and Iēsous was not yet come to them. 18 And a great wind blowing, the sea was thoroughly aroused.e 19 So having rowed about twenty five or thirty stadionsf, they observe Iēsous walking upon the sea and coming near the boat, and they were afraid. 20 But he says to them: It is I. Be not fearing. 21 So they were wanting to receive him into the boat, and immediately the boat came to be near the land to which they had departed.

 Iēsous the Bread of Life 

22 On the next day the crowd standing on the other side of the sea saw that no other small boat was there except one, and that Iēsous had not gone with his disciples into the boat but only his disciples departed; 23 (but other small boats came from Tiberius near the place where they ate the bread having been blessed by the Lord). 24 So when the crowd saw that Iēsous is not there nor his disciples, they embarked in the boats and came to Kapharnaoum seeking Iēsous.

25 And having found him on the other side of the sea they said to him, Rabbi, when did you come here? 26 Iēsous answered them and said: Truly trulyg I say to you, you seek me not because you see signsa, but because you ate of the bread and were filled. 27 Be working not for the perishing food, but for the food abiding to zōē-lifeh eternal, which the son of humanityb will give to you; for God the Father has sealedi this one.

28 So they said to him: What should we be doing, in order that we may be working the works of God? 29 Iēsous answered and said to them: This is the work of God, that you believe in whom that one has sent. 30 So they said to him: So, what signa do you work, in order that we may see and believe in you? What do you work? 31 Our fathers ate manna in the wilderness, just as it is writtenj,

He gave them bread from heaven to eat.

32 So Iēsous said to them: Truly trulyg I say to you, Mōsēs did not give you bread from heaven, but my father gives you the true bread from heaven. 33 For the bread of God is the one coming down from heaven and giving zōē-lifeh to the world. 34 So they said to him: Lord, always give us this bread.

35 Iēsous said to them: I am the bread of zōē-lifeh; the one coming to me will notk hunger, and the one believing in me will notk thirst ever. 36 But I said to you that you have seen me and do not believe. 37 All that the Father gives me will come to me, and the one coming to me I will notk cast out. 38 For I am come downl from heaven not in order that I do my will, but the will of the one having sent me. 39 This is the will of the one having sent me, that of all he has given me I not losec any of it, but raise it up in the last day. 40 For this is the will of my Father, that everyone beholding the son and believing in him have zōē-lifeh eternal, and I will raise him up in the last day.

41 So the Jews were grumbling concerning him because he said: I am the bread having come down from heaven, 42 and they were saying: Is this not Iēsous the son of Iōsēph, whose father and mother we know? How does he now say that he is come downl from heaven? 43 Iēsous answered and said to them: Be not grumblingm with each other. 44 No one is able to come to me except the Father having sent me drawn him, and I will raise him up in the last day. 45 It is written in the prophetso:}

And they will all be taught by God.

Everyone having heard the Father and having learned from him comes toward me. 46 Not that anyone has seen the Father, except the one being from God, this one has seen the Father. 47 Truly trulyg I say to you, the one believing has zōē-lifeh eternal. 48 I am the bread of zōē-lifeh. 49 Your fathers ate the manna in the wilderness, and they died. 50 This is the bread coming down from heaven, in order that anyone who eat of it also not die. 51 I am the zōē-livingh bread having come down from heaven.p If anyone eat of this bread, he will zōē-liveh to eternity. But the bread that I will give is my flesh in behalf of the zōē-lifeh of the world.}

52 So the Jews were arguing with each other saying: How is this one able to give to us his flesh to eat? 53 So Iēsous said to them: Truly trulyg I say to you: unless you eat the flesh of the son of humanityb and drink his bloodq you do not have zōē-lifeh in yourselves. 54 The one feeding onr my flesh and drinking my blood has zōē-life eternal, and I will raise him up in the last day. 55 For my flesh is true food and my blood is true drink. 56 The one feeding ons my flesh and drinking my blood abidest in me and I in him. 57 Just as the zōē-livingh father sent me and I zōē-live through the father, also the one feeding ons me will zōē-live through me. 58 This is the bread having come down out of heaven, not just as the fathers ateu and died. The one feeding ons this bread will zōē-liveh to eternity. 59 This he said in the synagogue teaching in Kapharnaoum.

 The Words of Life Eternal 

60 So, many of the disciples having heard him said: This word is hardv, who is able to be hearing it? 61 Now Iēsous having known in himself that his disciples grumble concerning this, he said to them: Does this stumblew you? 62 What if you beheld the son of humanityb going up to where he was formerly? 63 The spirit is the one making zōē-alive, the flesh profits nothingk. The words that I have spoken to you are spirit and are zōē-lifeh. 64 But there are some among you who do not believe. For Iēsous had known from the beginning who are those not believing and who is the one who will deliver him up. 65 And he was saying: Because of this I have said to you that no one is able to come towards me except it has been given to him from the father.

66 From this many of his disciples departed back and no longer walked with him. 67 So Iēsous said to the twelve: Don’t you also want to be going away? 68 Simōn Petros answered him: Lord, towards whom will we depart? You have words of eternal zōē-lifeh. 69 And we have believed and have knownd that you are the holy one of God. 70 Iēsous answered them: Did I not choose you twelve? And one of you is a devilx. 71 But he was speaking of Ioudas the son of Simōn Iscariōth. For this one was about to be delivering him up, one of the twelve.

a SĒMEION/σημεῖον: sign. See the Glossary: SĒMEION/σημεῖον(↩2, 26, 30)

b ANThRŌPOS/ἄνθρωπος: humanity in general — not gender specific. See the Semantic Domain: Man/Woman/Humanity.(↩10, 14, 27, 53, 62)

c APOLLUMI/ἀπόλλυμι: destroy, kill, lose. See the Glossary: APOLLUMI/ἀπόλλυμι(↩12, 39)

d GINŌSKŌ/γινώσκω: to know, in a direct or firsthand manner. See the Glossary: GNŌSIS/γνῶσις(↩15, 69)

e The eastern coast of the normally placid Sea of Galilaia is formed by high country split by deep gorges. Sudden changes of weather can tunnel strong winds through the gorges, and create difficult conditions on the lake.(↩18)

f stadion = 1/8 mile, making this about 3 or 4 miles(↩19)

g AMĒN/ἀμήν: truly. ‘Truly’ (once) occurs 96 times in the N.T. (and never in John’s gospel); ‘Truly truly’ (twice) occurs 25 times, and only in Johns’s gospel. See the Glossary: AMĒN/ἀμήν(↩26, 32, 47, 53)

h ZOĒ/ζωή: life more generally/collectively (vs. PsUChĒ/ψυχή: life as an individual consciousness). See the Semantic Domain: Life.(↩27, 33, 35, 40, 47, 48, 51, 53, 57, 58, 63, 68)

i The Jews discussed “the seal of God”, .g. “What is the seal of the Holy, Blessed God? Rabbi Bibai answered, ‘Truth’. But what is ‘truth’? Rabbi Bon saith, ‘the living God and King eternal’. Rabbi Chaninah saith... ‘truth is the seal of God’.” Bab.Talmud, Sanhedr., quoted by Lightfoot, vol.xii p.291 (Pitman’s ed.).(↩27)

j Ps.78:24(↩31)

k Double negative, indicating emphasis.(↩35, 37, 63)

l Perfect tense: an action completed in the past whose results continue in the present — in a sense it is ‘past tense’ and ‘present tense’ at the same time (see [Zerwick1996] p.xxiv). The perfect verb tense is relatively rare, occurring 1571 times in the New Testament, vs. the present tense at 11,583 occurrences and the aorist (the most common tense for time past) at 11,606 occurrences [Wallace1996] p.497.(↩38, 42)

m Third person imperative.(↩43)

n ELKŌ/ἕλκω: to pull, draw (like a magnet). See the Glossary: ELKŌ/ἕλκω(↩44)

o Isa.54:13, Jer.31:34(↩45)

p Or: “I am the bread, the zōē-livingh, the one having come down from heaven.”(↩51)

q The Old Testament strictly forbade drinking blood (see Lev. 3:17). Also recall the strict Jewish dietary rules about what could be eaten (e.g. pork). Obviously Iēsous wasn’t telling the disciples to literally eat his flesh and drink his blood. Nevertheless, the metaphor would have been particularly shocking to His Jewish audience.(↩53)

r Iēsous changes from ESThIŌ/ἐσθίω in the previous verses — the usual word for ‘to eat’ (used 65 times in the N.T.), to TROGŌ/τρωγω (used six times in the N.T., four of them in this pericope) in vs.54 — ‘to bite or chew food, eat (audibly)’ [BDAG]. In this passage I use ‘eat’ for ESThIŌ/ἐσθίω and ‘feed on’ for TRŌGŌ/τρώγω so the English reader can see the transition. See the Glossary: ESThIŌ/ἐσθίω and the Glossary: TRŌGŌ/τρώγω(↩54)

s TRŌGŌ/τρώγω: chew, eat. See the Glossary: TRŌGŌ/τρώγω(↩56, 57, 58)

t MENŌ/μένω: remain, abide. See the Glossary: MENŌ/μένω(↩56)

u ESThIŌ/ἐσθίω: eat. See the Glossary: ESThIŌ/ἐσθίω(↩58)

v SKLĒROS/σκληρός: sign. See the Glossary: SKLĒROS/σκληρός(↩60)

w SKANDALIZŌ/σκανδαλίζω: cause to stumble. See the Glossary: SKANDALIZŌ/σκανδαλίζω(↩61)

x DIABOLOS/διάβολος. See the Semantic Domain: Devil/Satan.(↩70)

✣  ✣  ✣

A ‘to the disciples, and the disciples’: KD old syriac; omit: H(↩11)

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