New Testament

 Teaching about Almsgiving 

Matthew 6

Be giving heed that you not be doing your justice before peoplea to be seen by them, otherwise you have no rewardb from your father in the heavens. 2 Whenever therefore you do a merciful thing, do not trumpet before you, like the hypocrites do in the synagogues and in the streets, in order that they be glorified by peoplea. Truly I say to you, they have their rewardb. 3 But when you do a merciful thing, letc your left hand not knowd what your right hand is doing, 4 in order that your merciful deed be in secret. And your father who sees in secret will reward youA.

 Teaching about Prayer 

5 And when you pray, be not as the hypocrites. For they philia-love to be praying when standing in the synagogues and in the street corners, in order that they be manifest to othersa. Truly I say to you, they have their rewardb. 6 But you, when you pray, enter into your closet, and having closed the door, pray to your father that is in secret, and your father who sees in secret will reward you A 7 But when you pray, do not babblee like the nationsf, for they suppose that by their wordinessg they will be heard. 8 Be not as they, for your father knows what needs you have before you askh him. 9 Therefore pray thusly:

Our father B in the heavens,
c your name be holy,
10 Your kingdom come
Your will come to pass
as in heaven, so also on earth.
11 Give us today our dailyi bread
12 And forgivej us our debtsk
As we forgive
j our debtorsl.
13 And do not lead us into the testm,
but rescue us from the wicked
n one.
14 For yours is the kingdom and the power and the glory forever, Amen.]C

For if you forgivej peoplea their shortcomingso, your heavenly father will also allow you yours. 15 And if you do not forgivej peoplea theirsD, neither will your father allow you your shortcomingso.

 Teaching about Fasting 

16 Now when you fast, do not become sullen like the hypocrites, for they darken their faces in order that their fastings be manifest. Truly I say to you, they have their rewardb. 17 But you, when you fast, anoint your head and wash your face, 18 in order that your fasting not be manifest to peoplea, but to your father that is in secret. And your father who sees in secret will reward you.

 Treasure in Heaven 

19 Be not treasuring up treasures to yourselves on earth, where moth and rust corrupt, and where thieves break through and steal. 20 But be treasuring up treasures in heaven, where neither moth nor rust corrupt, and where thieves do not break through nor steal. 21 For where your treasure is, there will your heart be also.

 The Light of the Body 

22 The lamp of the body is the eye. If therefore your eye be clearp, your whole body will be radiant. 23 If however your eye be wicked, your whole body will be dark. If therefore the light in you is dark, how great is the darkness.

 God and Mammon 

24 No one is able to be slaveq to two lords. For either he will hate the one and agapē-love the other, or he will hold to the one, and despise the other. You cannot be slaveq to God and Mamōnasr.

 Care and Anxiety 

25 Therefore I say to you, be not concerning yourself about your psuchē-lifes: what you shall eat, nor with what you will clothe your body. Is not your psuchē-lifes more than food and your body more than clothing? 26 Behold the birds of the heavens: they do not sow, nor reap, nor gather into barns, and your heavenly father feeds them. Are you not more significant than they? 27 And which of you by concern is able to add to his height one cubit?

28 And why do you concern yourself about clothing? Learn from the lilies of the field how they grow: They neither toil nor spin. 29 Yet I say to you that Solomōn in all his glory was not adorned as one of these. 30 Now if God thus clothes the grass of the field which today is, and tomorrow is thrown into the oven, how much more you, O little-faiths? 31 Therefore be not concerned saying: What shall we eat? or What shall we drink? or What shall we wear? 32 For the nationsf strive after all these things. For your heavenly father knows that you need all these things. 33 Be seeking first the kingdom and its justice, and all these things will be added to you. 34 Therefore be not concerned with tomorrow, for tomorrow will be concerned with itself. Enough for the day is its own evilt.

a ANThRŌPOS/ἄνθρωπος: humanity in general — not gender specific. See the Semantic Domain: Man/Woman/Humanity.(↩1, 2, 5, 14, 15, 18)

b MISThOS/μισθός: wages; reward. See the Glossary: MISThOS/μισθός(↩1, 2, 5, 16)

c Third person imperative.(↩3, 9)

d GINŌSKŌ/γινώσκω: to know, in a direct or firsthand manner. See the Glossary: GNŌSIS/γνῶσις(↩3)

e BATTALOGEŌ/βατταλογεω. the meaning of this word is obscure; some translate it “vain repetition”. This is the only place in the N.T. where this word is used, so it’s not possible to determine its meaning from N.T. usage (always the first choice), and the etymology of BATTALOGEŌ/βατταλογεω is unclear. BATTOS = ’stammerer’, however.

To merely repeat a prayer request is apparently not ’babbling’ in Iēsous view since he himself prayed repeating the same words (e.g. Matt 26:44).

Notice that Iēsous specifically refers to ’the nations’ — whatever He has in mind was apparently a Gentile practice of the day.(↩7)

f i.e. the Gentiles(↩7, 32)

g POLULOGIA/πολυλογία: many words. Only used here.(↩7)

h AITEŌ/αἰτέω: ‘ask’ more insistently (vs. ERŌTAŌ/ἐρωτάω: ask more respectfully). See the Semantic Domain: Ask.(↩8)

i EPIOUSIOS/ἐπιούσιος: daily(?) This is a problematic word. See the Glossary: EPIOUSIOS/ἐπιούσιος(↩11)

j APhIĒMI/ἀφίημι: bid farewell. See the Glossary: APOTASSŌ/ἀποτάσσω(↩12, 14, 15)

k OPhEILĒMA/ὀφείλημα: debt. See the Glossary: OPhEILĒ/ὀφειλή(↩12)

l OPhEILETĒS/ὀφειλέτης: debtor. See the Glossary: OPhEILĒ/ὀφειλή(↩12)

m PEIROSMOS/πειρασμός: a test, temptation. See the Glossary: PEIRA/πεῖρα(↩13)

n PONĒROS/πονηρός: evil, rotten. See the Glossary: PONĒROS/πονηρός(↩13)

o PARAPTŌMA/παράπτωμα: shortcoming. See the Glossary: PARAPTŌMA/παράπτωμα(↩14, 15)

p hAPLOUS/ἁπλοῦς: clear, sincere; generous. See the Glossary: hAPLOUS/ἁπλοῦς(↩22)

q DOULOS/δοῦλος: slave. See the Glossary: DOULOS/δοῦλος(↩24)

r MAMŌNAS/μαμωνᾶς: wealth. See the Glossary: MAMŌNAS/μαμωνᾶς(↩24)

s PsUChĒ/ψυχή: Life as an individual consciousness (vs. ZOĒ/ζωή: life more generally/collectively). See the Semantic Domain: Life.(↩25)

t KAKOS/κακός: evil, bad, wrong. See the Glossary: KAKOS/κακός(↩34)

✣  ✣  ✣

A add “manifestly” WK; text: אBD vulgate(↩4, 6)

B “Our father” אWK vulgate ; “God our father” B(↩9)

C add “For yours is the kingdom and the power and the glory forever, Amen”: WK many; omit: אBDH vulgate(↩14)

D “theirs” אD vulgate many; “their shortcomings” BWK most(↩15)

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