New Testament

Glossary of Greek Words

Certain Greek words simply don’t have good English equivalents — e.g. LOGOS/λόγος (generally translated ‘the Word’) in John 1:1. In the Text I footnote such words with a brief expansion of their meanings; here in the glossary I go into greater detail. And ultimately the only way to truly grasp the sense of a word is to see it used in contexts, so the Glossary lists every usage of the word in the New Testament.

Words from the same root are listed together, e.g. BAPTIZŌ/βαπτίζω: ‘to baptize’, BAPTISMA/βάπτισμα: ‘baptism’, and BAPTISTĒS/βαπτιστής: ‘baptizer’ are all listed under BAPTIZŌ/βαπτίζω. (See the Glossary: BAPTIZŌ/βαπτίζω.)

For a chart of the Greek alphabet, see the Appendix: Transliteration.

  

A/A (Alpha)

ABUSSOS/ἄβυσσος: abyss

AGAThOS/ἀγαθός: good, right, proper

AGAPĒ/ἀγάπη: love

hADĒS/ᾅδης: Hades

AINEŌ/αἰνέω: to praise

AITEŌ/αἰτέω: ask

AITIA/αἰτία: reason, cause

AIŌN/αἰών: eon, age

AKERAIOS/ἀκέραιος: pure, innocent

AKOUŌ/ἀκούω: to hear

AKRASIA/ἀκρασία: self-indulgence

AKUROŌ/ἀκυρόω: make void

ALĒThEIA/ἀλήθεια: truth

hALLOMAI/ἅλλομαι: leap

ALLOTRIOS/ἀλλότριος: belonging to a stranger, to another

hAMARTIA/ἁμαρτία: sin

AMĒN/ἀμήν: truly

ANAGKAZŌ/ἀναγκάζω: compel

ANAPAUSIS/ἀνάπαυσις: rest

ANEChŌ/ἀνέχω: to endure, put up with

ANĒR/ἀνήρ: man, husband

ANThRŌPOS/ἄνθρωπος: humanity

ANISTĒMI/ἀνίστημι: raise up, resurrect

ANŌThEN/ἄνωθεν: above, again

AXIOS/ἄξιος: worthy

hAPLOUS/ἁπλοῦς: clear, sincere

APODIDŌMI/ἀποδίδωμι: to give, pay render

APOKAThISTĒMI/ἀποκαθίστημι: to restore

APOLLUMI/ἀπόλλυμι: destroy

APOSTELLŌ/ἀποστέλλω: send

APOTASSŌ/ἀποτάσσω: leave

APTŌ/ἅπτω: ignite; touch, grasp; harm

ARNEOMAI/ἀρνέομαι: deny, refuse

ARPAZŌ/ἁρπάζω: take by force; take away, carry off

ASThENEIA/ἀσθένεια: weakness, illness

APhIĒMI/ἀφίημι: leave, let go, send away

APhISTĒMI/ἀφίστημι: to withdraw, go away

B/B (Beta)

BAPTIZŌ/βαπτίζω: baptize

BASANOS/βάσανος: torment, pain

BDELUGMA/βδέλυγμα: abomination

BEBĒLOS/βέβηλος: pointless, worthless

BIAZŌ/βιάζω: to inflict violence (passive: have violence inflicted upon)

BIBLOS/βίβλος: book

BIOS/βίος: life

BLASPhĒMIA/βλασφημία: slander, defamation, especially against God

BOSKŌ/βόσκω: tend, feed

BOULOMAI/βούλομαι: want, intend

BRUChŌ/βρύχω: grind, gnash [one’s teeth]

G/Γ (Gamma)

GAMOS/γάμος: marriage

GEENNA/γέεννα: Hell

GENNAŌ/γεννάω: sire, give birth

GNŌSIS/γνῶσις: knowledge

GUNĒ/γυνή: woman, wife

D/Δ (Delta)

DEILOS/δειλός: cowardly, timid

DESPOTĒS/δεσπότης: lord

DEŌ/δέω: bind

DIABOLOS/διάβολος: slanderer

DIKAONOS/διάκονος: servant

DIARPAZŌ/διαρπάζω: to plunder

DIASPORA/διασπορά: dispersion

DIASTREPhŌ/διαστρέφω: to deform, pervert

DIKĒ/δίκη: justice, fairness

DOXA/δόξα: splendor, glory

DOULOS/δοῦλος: slave

DUNAMIS/δύναμις: power

DUSKOLOS/δύσκολος: difficult

DŌREA/δωρεά: gift

E/E (Epsilon)

EIKŌN/εἰκών: likeness

EKKLĒSIA/ἐκκλησία: assembly

EKLEKTOS/ἐκλεκτός: chosen

EKLUŌ/ἐκλύω: to be exhausted

EKPLĒSSŌ/ἐκπλήσσω: to be astonished

ELAPhROS/ἐλαφρός: light in weight

ELEGChŌ/ἐλέγχω: convince, prove guilty

ELKŌ/ἕλκω: pull, draw

EMBRIMAOMAI/ἐμβριμάομαι: speak harshly

ENERGEŌ/ἐνεργέω: to work

ENTOLĒ/ἐντολή: commandment

EXOMOLOGEŌ/ἐξομολογέω: confess, profess, agree

EXOUSIA/ἐξουσία: authority

EPIGRAphĒ/ἐπιγραφή: inscription

EPIThUMEŌ/ἐπιθυμέω: desire

EPIOUSIOS/ἐπιούσιος: daily(?)

ERGON/ἔργον: work

ERĒMOS/ἔρημος: deserted

ERŌTAŌ/ἐρωτάω: ask

ESThIŌ/ἐσθίω: eat

ETAIROS/ἑταῖρος: an acquaintance

EUAGGELION/εὐαγγέλιον: good news, gospel

EUDOKIA/εὐδοκία: favor

Z/Z (Zeta)

ZĒMIOŌ/ζημιόω: lose

ZIZANION/ζιζάνιον: a weed resembling wheat

ZŌĒ/ζωή: life

Ē/H (Eta)

ĒLIKIA/ἡλικία: span of life, height

Th/Θ (Theta)

ThAUMA/θαῦμα: an object of wonder

ThĒSAUROS/θησαυρός: treasury, storehouse

ThLIPsIS/θλῖψις: affliction

ThROEŌ/θροέω: to be disturbed or frightened

ThUSIA/θυσία: offering, [temple] sacrifice

K/K (Kappa)

KAThĒGĒTĒS/καθηγητής: teacher, tutor

KAIROS/καιρός: the opportune time

KAKOS/κακός: evil, bad, wrong

KALEŌ/καλέω: to call

KALOS/καλός: good, right, proper

KARDIA/καρδία: heart

KATALAMBANŌ/καταλαμβάνω: win, catch, understand

KĒTOS/κῆτος: sea monster

KLAIŌ/κλαίω: weep, sob

KODRANTĒS/κοδράντης: kodrantes, the smallest Roman coin

KOLLAŌ/κολλάω: join, attach to

KOLPOS/κόλπος: bosom, lap

KOPOS/κόπος: exhaustion

KOSMOS/κόσμος: world

KTĒMA/κτῆμα: possession

KURIOS/κύριος: lord

L/Λ (Lambda)

LAMBANŌ/λαμβάνω: take; receive

LAMPŌ/λάμπω: to shine

LAOS/LAOS/λαός: people

LATREUŌ/λατρεύω: serve

LOGOS/λόγος: word

LUPEŌ/λυπέω: to [cause] pain; to grieve

LUTROŌ/λυτρόω: to ransom, rescue

LUŌ/λύω: loosen, untie

M/M (Mu)

MAGOS/μάγος: mage

MAKARIOS/μακάριος: blessed

MALAKIA/μαλακία: weakness

MAMŌNAS/μαμωνᾶς: Mamōnas

MANThANŌ/μανθάνω: learn

MARTURIA/μαρτυρία: testimony, witness

MASTIX/μάστιξ: a whip

MATĒN/μάτην: in vain, futilely

MELOMAI/μέλομαι: to be a cause of concern

MENŌ/μένω: remain

MESSIAS/Μεσσίας: Messiah

METAMELOMAI/μεταμέλομαι: to regret

METAMORPhAŌ/μεταμορφόω: to be transformed

METANOEŌ/μετανοέω: repent

MISThOS/μισθός: wage

MONOGENĒS/μονογενής: only begotten

MUSTĒRION/μυστήριον: mystery

MŌROS/μωρός: foolish

N/N (Nu)

NĒPIOS/νήπιος: infant

NOSOS/νόσος: sickness

NOUS/νοῦς: mind

O/O (Omicron)

hODOS/ὁδός: way, road, journey

OINOS/οἶνος: wine

hOMOLOGEŌ/ὁμολογέω: promise; agree; confess

ONIKOS/ὀνικός: pertaining to a donkey; the millstone a donkey turned

ORAŌ/ὁράω: to see

ORKOS/ὅρκος: oath

OPhEILĒ/ὀφειλή: debt

P/Π (Pi)

PAIDION/παιδίον: a child, normally pre-adolescent

PAIS/παῖς: child; slave, servant

PALIGGENESIA/παλιγγενεσία: regeneration, rebirth.

PARABOLĒ/παραβολή: parable

PARADIDŌMI/παραδίδωμι: favor

PARAKLĒTOS/παράκλητος: comforter, advocate, intermediary

PARALUTIKOS/παραλυτικός: paralyzed

PARAPTŌMA/παράπτωμα: a test

PARThENOS/παρθένος: virgin

PARRĒSIA/παρρησία: openness

PASCŌ/πάσχω: to suffer

PEITHW/πείθω: to persuade

PEIRA/πεῖρα: a test

PEMPŌ/πέμπω: send

PETROS/Πέτρος: Petros, rock

PINŌ/πίνω: drink

PLĒROŌ/πληρόω: to fill, fulfill

PLĒSION/πλησίον: neighbor

PLOUSIOS/πλούσιος: wealthy

PNEUMA/πνεῦμα: spirit, breath

PONĒROS/πονηρός: evil, rotten

PORNEIA/πορνεία: fornication

PRASSŌ/πράσσω: to practice, perform repeatedly

PRAUS/πραΰς: humble

PROSKUNEŌ/προσκυνέω: worship

PROSTIThĒMI/προστίθημι: present

PROSŌPON/πρόσωπον: face, appearance

PTŌChOS/πτωχός: begger

Ρ/Ρ (Rho)

RABBI/ῥαββί: master

RAKA/ῥακά: empty-head

RĒMA/ῥῆμα: word

S/Σ (Sigma)

SAPROS/σαπρός: rotten

SARX/σάρξ: flesh

SATAN/σατάν: The Adversary

SELĒNIAZOMAI/σεληνιάζομαι: ‘moonstruck’, epileptic

SĒMEION/σημεῖον: sign

SINAPI/σίναπι: a mustard seed

SKANDALIZŌ/σκανδαλίζω: cause to stumble

SKĒNĒ/σκηνή: dwelling, tent

SKLĒROS/σκληρός: hard, difficult

SKOTOS/σκότος: darkness, gloom

SOPhIA/σοφία: wisdom

SPLAGChNIZOMA/σπλαγχνίζομαι: to have compassion

STADION/στάδιον: a stadion, 1/8 mile; stadium)

STREPhŌ/στρέφω: to turn

SUZEUGNUMI/συζεύγνυμι: to yoke together

SUMPhERŌ/συμφέρω: to bring together

SUNEDRION/συνέδριον: council; the Sanhedrin Council in Jerusalem

SUNIĒMI/συνίημι: to understand

SUNTELEŌ/συντελέω: to complete

SŌZŌ/σῴζω: deliver, rescue

SŌMA/σῶμα: body

T/T (Tau)

TAPEINOS/ταπεινός: lowly

TELEIOS/τέλειος: complete, perfect

TERAS/τέρας: something astonishing

TETRARChĒS/τετράρχης: tetrarch, a ruler of a region, subordinate to a king

TĒREŌ/τηρέω: keep, obey

TIThĒMI/τίθημι: place, commit

TIMAŌ/τιμάω: value, honor

TREPhŌ/τρέφω: food

TRŌGŌ/τρώγω: chew

U/Υ (Upsilon)

hUPARChŌ/ὑπάρχω: to be; to be at one’s disposal

hUPOKRITĒS/ὑποκριτής: hypocrite

UPsOŌ/ὑψόω: lift up

hUSTEREŌ/ὑστερέω: to lack

UPSOŌ/ὑψόω: lift up

Ph/Φ (Phi)

PhAINŌ/φαίνω: to shine, illumine

PhANTASMA/φάντασμα: apparition, ghost)

PhAULOS/φαῦλος: vile

PhEGGOS/φέγγος: light of the moon

PhERŌ/φέρω: to carry

PhILIA/φιλία: love

PhRONIMOS/φρόνιμος: prudent, sensible

PhULAKĒ/φυλακή: prison; watch of the night; haunt, lair

PhŌNĒ/φωνή: sound

PhŌS/φῶς: light

Ch/Χ (Chi)

ChARIS/χάρις: grace, kindness

ChORTAZŌ/χορτάζω: to fill [with food]; to be satisfied

ChRĒSTOS/χρηστός: easy

ChRISTOS/Χριστός: Christ, Messiah

ChŌREŌ/χωρέω: to make room for; to accept

Ps/Ψ (Psi)

PsUChĒ/ψυχή: life

Ō/Ω (Omega)

hŌRAIOS/ὡραῖος: timely; lovely

hŌSANNA/ὡσαννά: Hosanna